The design of the kitchen in the apartment and its development is a multi-step process, which includes the design, selection of materials for the plan, the decoration of the room, its design and decorative “polishing”. The front of works is impressive, but with the right approach, the result will be appropriate. The kitchen is a special room in the house. It is arranged in such a way that the preparation of food from a daily conscription turns into a pleasant process, and the hostess draws culinary inspiration from the decor of the room. Most modern kitchens are combined with dining rooms. Previously, this design move was a necessity to save space, but recently it has become a fashionable and stylish solution. Absolutely all family members attend the kitchen at least three times a day, this does not include unscheduled snacks and evening tea. Guests besides sitting in the living room, will also come to this room for refreshments or a festive dinner. The kitchen is designed in two ways:
- They create furniture in the style chosen for decoration of the whole apartment as the main one;
- Decorate a separate room outside the overall design concept, which will "live" by its own laws.
The kitchen at the subconscious level is associated with the home. This is a kind of “ancestral memory”, because earlier in this room a furnace was melted down, which warmed the whole house, allowed cooking and created a feeling of inimitable comfort. Now the placement is not something that the stove, even the fireplace in the kitchen is not considered appropriate, and the feeling of comfort is achieved by other methods.
Top styles for the kitchen
The loft-style kitchen is a combination of “old with new”. It successfully combines brick or plastered walls with modern "stuffing" of the room. Communication pipes are on display, and materials use stone, wood and metal. Loft is suitable for spacious rooms with high ceilings, as if earlier they were intended for industrial use. But in small kitchens the style flavor will be lost and “eat” extra square meters.
The interior of the kitchen in the style of Provence is characterized as an imitation of charming antiquity. The style has a touch of romanticism and naivety. It uses an abundance of wooden furniture and natural light. Typically, kitchens with the flavor of the French hinterland make out in private country houses, as even with the construction of the room set spacious windows. This style can be safely attributed to the budget, as it uses "grandmother's" furniture. It is enough to slightly elevate it and decorate it with vases with compositions of wild flowers, variegated curtains, tablecloth with an ornament. The design of the decoration is also simple. In Provence use natural materials (wood in priority) with a rough texture. For wall decoration suitable wallpaper of a delicate color in a cute flower. Of the shades give preference to a warm range.
The kitchen in the style of minimalism is made on the principle of "nothing extra". Only the necessary elements that often perform several functions at once. In minimalism there is no place for trifles and decor. Utensils, pots and other kitchen utensils are hidden behind closed cabinet doors, and large forms come to the fore. The color scheme is chosen according to the concept of contrasts. Usually in the minimalist kitchen there are white, black and gray colors. The palette is the most restrained and strict.
Classical kitchen as if breathes luxury and elegance. It uses a large number of stucco, decorative elements, crystal and reflective surfaces. The classic room to symmetry, which should be considered when choosing a furniture set. Of the colors, preference is given to light shades. Allowed to use bright accents only on the background of white furniture. By the way, thanks to this color neutrality, the classic kitchen is not boring and for many years will delight the owners eye, without requiring repairs. From materials choose natural wood.
The high-tech kitchen combines simple but expensive finishes with high technology. The direction gives preference to artificial light, the abundance of which is provided on several levels at once. Indoors, only one color prevails, which is shaded by several soothing tones. Gray, black and white symbolize practicality and "complex simplicity."
Art nouveau or new art in the design of the kitchen is embodied with the help of wavy lines. Sharp angles in this style fall under the taboo. Smoothness can be traced everywhere: in the decor, structural elements and even interior decoration. Also in the style there are floral ornament, mosaic patterns, painting. Distantly, the Art Nouveau reminds of a classic that was beaten in a “new way”.
When choosing colors, they resort to four classic variations of the combination of shades:
- Contrast. It selects two primary colors that are in different “temperature” sections on the spectral circle. They are complemented by one or two shades;
- Monophonic. The main color is set off by its closest neighbors in the spectrum. The tone pattern is very calm. This concept is also called monochrome. Choose either cold or warm shades;
- The principle of similarity. When it is chosen the main color and two shades that are from him at an angle of about 15-20 degrees on the spectrum. It is important that both of them be equidistant from the pitch;
- Accent combination. It contains four colors: the main one, its two shades and bright tone. The latter is chosen on the basis of contrast with the main “hero” of the composition.
Any of the color concepts presented is universal and suitable for all types of premises, and the kitchen is no exception.
A priori, the kitchen should be "warm." Even in elegant or simple apartments it is necessary to preserve the comfort of the home, not the museum "coldness." For this reason, it is not recommended to abuse shades with "low temperature". Cold tones will affect the culinary mood of the hostess and the appetite of the household.
The psychology of color is a complex “science”, on the study of which psychologists, marketing specialists, and sociologists spent a lot of energy. The color imperceptibly and gently affects the human brain. He can, at the level of the subconscious, induce him to something, raise his spirits, cause apathy, provoke an agitated state or aggression. Taoist practice of organizing space and selecting colors for specific rooms is engaged in an in-depth study of the effect of shades on the human psyche. Feng Shui helps to equip a dwelling so that people living in it feel harmony. White color is associated with innocence. A blank sheet of paper is a symbolic “door” to the world of new opportunities. White shirts are worn to impress, and festive tables are covered with the same tablecloths. This color prevails in medical institutions, and the "guests" of hospitals, as you know, need rest. His most irreconcilable opponent is black. In humans, it causes controversial associations. It symbolizes night, twilight, evil, death and negative. Although there is not a single person who does not have dark things in the wardrobe. They always look stylish and elegant. A similar touch of severity brings black color to the interior. He perfectly copes with the task of the background on which other components of the room color palette are “played”.
Red symbolizes action, activity, passion, challenge and even aggression. This color always attracts attention and excites the mind. For this reason, it cannot be used in rooms that should be set up in a relaxed mood. Green is considered the color of nature, youth, freshness, health, peace, grass and tree crowns. Its natural shades will help create a cozy atmosphere in the kitchen. Blue refers to cold colors, yet it is the favorite of most people on Earth. Best of all, this tone creates a relaxed atmosphere that is conducive to communication. How many have wondered why most social networks have blue logos? Because he acts as a guarantor of a "heart-to-heart talk". For the kitchen blue and its closest shade - blue is rarely suitable. They do not contribute to the appetite and adjust for excessive relaxation. As the main theme of the marine theme, blue is associated with relaxation, so it is added to sleeping compositions.
Yellow acts as a symbol of the sun, optimism, joy and activity. It belongs to warm shades, so it is ideal for the kitchen. Yellow walls or headsets will not only look beautiful, but also tune in a positive way. Violet is associated with religious sacrament, luxury and even light "alienity." The fact is that in nature this color is very rare. In the interior of the kitchen purple looks only as an accent. Pink means youth, tenderness and lightness (similar to white in this). This color is preferred for creating “soft”, romantic interiors. Brown, many unconsciously associated with spring dirt, deformity and something outdated, surviving from fashion. In fact, this color is simply underestimated, because it is also a symbol of fallen leaves, tree trunks and fertile land. Brown is able to create a warm, cozy room in which anyone can feel comfortable. Gray is the result of a combination of two spectral opponents: white and black. It refers to neutral colors that are suitable for those who love simplicity and modesty. Orange is an intermediate option between yellow and red. It is considered a sample of extravagance and energy. Many of the things we call red actually have an orange color: fire bonfire, sunset.
There are unpleasant associations with “dirty” shades of yellow. These tones symbolize betrayal, lies, madness. Choose “clean”, juicy tones.
Kitchen color correction
In typical Khrushchev houses there are usually small kitchens. Many believe that the lack of space allows only an economy option in the design. The size of the room can be played using color. This is a real way to hide its weaknesses and increase the advantages. As a result, the room will seem larger than it actually is. Use warm colors in the wall decoration:
- Light yellow;
The floor can be decorated in the natural color of light wood, and the top is left white. This will extend the space if the ceilings are too low. To expand the kitchen on the bright wallpaper allowed horizontal stripes. They can act as a decorative element, a dividing zone between two different types of decoration from the bottom and top. The spacious kitchens and features more. They can be safely designed according to the principle of contrasts and not be afraid of cold shades or dark tones.
The specificity of the microclimate of the kitchen determines the selection of special finishing materials. They must withstand changes in temperature and humidity. In addition, the coating will often be subjected to purification, because no matter how well the hood worked, and the “fat” coating will eventually form. To get a combination of decorative and operational qualities, types of finishing materials are combined with each other in different conventional kitchen areas. With the wrong selection of coverage, it will quickly become unusable and will have to re-repair the premises.
Floor covering is chosen from the materials presented below:
- Linoleum. It is unpretentious in leaving, imitates any texture and at the price belongs to the most budgetary materials;
- Cork coating. Hypoallergenic, natural material. It is nice to "spring" under your feet, which allows you to walk on it barefoot. It repels dust and is easy to clean;
- Laminate. Mimics any wood, easy to maintain;
- Floorboard. Sensitive to moisture and temperature changes. The kitchen is used mainly for finishing the dining area;
- Bulk floor. Durable, durable and has a seamless structure. Allows you to arrange the floor with three-dimensional drawings or panoramas;
- Ceramic tile. Considered a traditional flooring. It is easy to clean, not sensitive to household chemicals, it successfully withstands all the vagaries of the kitchen microclimate, but it can crack due to strong blows;
- Porcelain stoneware. Unlike tile, it is shock resistant, easily tolerates high humidity and temperature changes. Differs in high cost.
At registration of a ceiling are guided by the budget and stylistics of the room. Finishing materials are selected from the standard list:
- Whitewash. Simple and affordable way to finish the ceiling. Unfortunately, whitewashing badly tolerates moisture, therefore, will require frequent updating of the coating;
- Wallpaper. An unconventional option that is difficult to implement. Heavy wallpaper with difficulty to hold on to the ceiling until the glue is completely dry. It is very difficult to glue the rolls, so you will need an assistant who will lead the process, watching him from the side;
- Painting. The traditional method that was actively used in the design of kitchens in the last century. The paint is easy to clean, but over time it will crack and lose the “marketable” look, it will have to be updated every couple of years;
- Plastic. It belongs to the economical options. The material is easy to install and even withstand flooding from the neighbors above. At damage of a separate part of a covering local repair is allowed;
- Drywall Its installation is sometimes fraught with difficulties, but the material allows you to embody the most daring design fantasies. Plasterboards create multi-level ceilings;
- Rack material. For the kitchen, models with closed seams are used, since otherwise dirt will accumulate in the “gutters”. Its installation is akin to the assembly of the designer;
- Stretch ceiling. Finishing will be carried out with the involvement of the master, which is associated with additional costs. The material has no seams, hides surface defects, is easy to clean.
The following materials are used to finish the walls:
- PVC panels. They are easy to clean, easy to clean, but can not withstand too high temperatures. Sensitivity to mechanical damage, pays off their low cost;
- Tile (artificial and natural). Universal, durable material that withstands all the tests of the atmosphere of the kitchen. Panel design easily adapts to different stylistic decisions;
- Brick. Shockproof, provides high-quality sound and heat insulation. Differs in cheapness, but without additional finishing will be suitable only for a narrow group of styles;
- Wallpaper. For the kitchen, you can use only special, heavy-duty options (vinyl). Allow to embody any design fantasies;
- Wooden lining. Easy to install, relatively inexpensive. The material must undergo treatment with special substances that will increase resistance to rotting processes;
- Decorative plaster. Allows you to hide flaws and defects of the walls. With it, you can repeat any texture;
- A rock. Durable, does not contribute to the proliferation of bacteria, easy to clean. Of the disadvantages, only the high cost of natural material is noted.
Recently, cork panels have become fashionable. They are safe for human health, absorb noise and retain heat.
There is another option for decorative wall decoration - mosaic. It will give the room some zest. And the type of design fits all styles, because its variations are mass. Even for a solid high tech, mirror pieces are used in the shape of squares.
Protective apron is usually made as an accent. It differs from the rest of the wall decoration material performance, color and pattern. For the design of the kitchen apron use the following materials:
- Ceramic tile. Classic material, which is used both in one color and with drawings;
- A rock. Spectacular and stylish design;
- Glass. Used hardened material. Such aprons, as a rule, are made to order;
- Mosaic. Allows you to create complex compositions;
- Porcelain stoneware. Heavy-duty material, which includes coloring pigments, silicates, quartz sand and two types of clay. Able to imitate any texture. Differs in high cost;
- Wooden panels. They are gradually becoming a thing of the past, since this material is being supplanted in the kitchen by more durable counterparts;
- Mirror apron. It is carried out in three guys: panels, mosaic and tile. Neither moisture, nor temperature, nor fungus are terrible for such a material;
- Steel. Ideal for high-tech kitchens. Note its strength and durability. Seamless sheet metal will be a stylish design element. Looks particularly impressive with the backlight;
- Brick. Sounds like a line of "industrial" styles. A successful combination is considered to be a ceramic tile that imitates brickwork. It has many color variations.
Organization of kitchen space
Передвижения по кухне имеют цикличный характер: выкладывание продуктов в холодильник, их обработка, приготовление пищи, мойка посуды, перенос остатков трапезы в место для хранения. For this reason, the main conditions for the proper organization of the space are: the absence of obstacles to the accomplishment of these repetitive actions and the convenient location of the most frequently visited places.
Types of layouts
When planning the kitchen, it is necessary to decide on the option, based on the rule of the "golden triangle", when the washing zone, hob and fridge are at a distance of 60 to 300 cm from each other. There are several ways to arrange furniture in the kitchen:
- Linear layout. Furniture is placed along one wall;
- Parallel. Furnishing elements are located along two opposite walls;
- Corner layout. Furniture is placed in two walls that are close by;
- Island The hob and the sink area are arranged in the middle of the kitchen (the permissible room size is at least 25 square meters).
Zoning the kitchen-living room
Owners of two-bedroom apartments easier to fit into the housing all the necessary areas: a bedroom, living room, dining room and kitchen. Now more and more often there are so-called studios. The practice of using one large room for living came to us from Europe. In the studio apartment, the kitchen and dining area are conventionally placed together. Naturally the space must be distinguished. There are several options:
- With light. The intermediate area between the zones is highlighted, creating the illusion of a conditional border;
- Color. Both functional platforms are designed in the same style, but using different tint bases;
- Decorative overlappings. Arches or fake walls will serve as an obvious room divider;
- "Steps" on the ceiling or floor;
- Furnished. As a basis for zoning can be "through" racks or bar counters;
- Mobile partitions. Most often, screens are used for these purposes. They are easy to clean when needed, but they are not advised to use fabric partitions in the kitchen, as the material will absorb odors.
Kitchen with balcony
A kitchen that has access to a balcony or loggia can be “continued” due to this extra space. The window and the door between them is dismantled, and the partition is designed for a bar counter or demolished. This practice is relevant for small kitchens up to 8 square meters. If the owners are also forced to combine it with the dining room, then the latter can be completely transferred to the balcony. The table top in this case uses the "longitudinal" under the wall, and the chairs are placed in a line, as in a cafe. During the meal, homemade can enjoy the views from the window and feel slightly detached, but such design becomes fashionable in recent times. An ordinary balcony can turn into a stylish pantry for food storage or a separate recreation area, where the hostess will take breaks between household chores.
In the kitchen using complex combinations of light sources. They not only allow you to cook or eat in a comfortable atmosphere, but also emphasize the dignity of decoration. There are several lighting options that are being worked out at the design stage:
- Ceiling chandelier is complemented by lamps around the perimeter of the room. This option will illuminate all the most remote corners of the room;
- The main light source is combined with LEDs. Usually they are located in the apron area to make the hostess more convenient to work;
- The main light is combined with decorative lighting of furniture. The latter will emphasize the design features. The main effect is achieved due to glare and reflection of light on the surface of the headset. Typically, this way of organizing lighting gives the kitchen a touch of elegance.
Naturally, in addition to conventional methods, the owner can independently come up with a unique option.
The choice of textiles and decor
Textiles are considered the main decorative element that brings comfort to the room. In the kitchen of fabric are:
- Towels and napkins;
- Tacks and caps on kettles;
- Covers for chairs.
Depending on the characteristics of the fabric, three types of tissue are distinguished:
- Natural. Manufactured and natural materials. Resistant to fading;
- Synthetic. Quickly becomes useless (loses its shape, fades). The kitchen is rarely used;
- Combined type. Combines the advantages of natural materials and eliminates the disadvantages of synthetics.
Textiles are chosen for the kitchen, which will be able to “live through” numerous washes without losing the shape and beautiful appearance. In this room, there is a high concentration of various odors that will be absorbed by the fabric, along with particles of fat.
Kitchen design is developed independently or attract a specialist. If you decide to experience your talents as a designer, then learn the main features of the style that will be embodied in this room. Any space you can competently beat and turn its flaws into unique features. It is enough to connect your imagination and approach the matter from a creative point of view. Only in this case, the kitchen will become not just a functional room, but also the "central hub" of the apartment, where home and guests will be happy to gather.