"It is very possible that Isadora Duncan does just that. Maybe she dines in the office and cuts rabbits in the bathroom. But I am not Isadora Duncan. I will have lunch in the dining room and operate in the operating room." (Dog's heart. M. Bulgakov)
Living space in which there are only bearing walls is called a studio. It has no internal walls (with the exception of the bathroom), it is conventionally divided into a living area and a dining area with a built-in kitchen. There was such a layout in the 20s of the last century. The creation of the studio itself is attributed to German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, although, in fairness, it is worth noting that in his apartment projects with a free layout of those years, the kitchen and bathroom were located in the apartment’s “fixed core”. The same idea of open space pervades the "gaining momentum" in our country, the design of a kitchen-studio, a kitchen combined with a living room, a dining room, a corridor or a loggia. Initially, the kitchen-studio was by optimizing the living space only for a small kitchen in a standard apartment, but over time it became popular and in dwellings that made it possible not to feel "cramped."
Advantages and disadvantages
Combining the kitchen with other rooms will create a new spacious and bright room with great functionality, in which the entire area will be used rationally. This option is convenient for standard kitchens of 8 square meters, the dimensions of which leave much to be desired. Positive sides will be:
- The space is more illuminated and contains a larger volume of air, since there are no "deaf" walls. Visually, with this design, even a small kitchen will be perceived as spacious.
- The opportunity to take a large number of guests and communicate with them without interrupting the preparation of food and snacks will be appreciated by the “hospitable” hosts. Those who are engaged in "cooking" have the opportunity not to lose sight of the children who are in the adjacent room.
- The ability to more efficiently use all the space previously limited by the wall. Along with the adherents of such a "symbiosis" there are opponents.
The disadvantages of the kitchen-studio should include:
- When cooking, the smell from the kitchen area will spread throughout the room. Powerful exhaust and the location of the kitchen unit directly at the window (but not less than 40 cm in order to avoid blowing a gas burner with a draft) can sometimes improve the situation. Invisible particles of soot and grease will settle on the upholstered furniture in the adjacent area. Clear the sofas and chairs from such a "raid" will be difficult.
The sound from the working kitchen appliances is not isolated from the "rest" zone. A blender, a boiling kettle, fridge, dishwasher, etc. may interfere with a friendly conversation or watching TV.
- Aesthetics. Working moments, the type of waste and cleaning during cooking or unwashed dishes in the sink can spoil the impression of the guests, if someone wants to "wander on the light" early. Limited use at night, if combined with the kitchen is a seating area. Violation of someone's sleep with the sounds of moving pans and plates that will not be very nice.
Kitchen layout - important nuances
With proper and harmonious placement of furniture and work surfaces, the size of even a small kitchen can be turned to our advantage. Starting planning, you must follow the "golden rule": the location of the vertices of the "working triangle" (stove, sink, refrigerator) from each other at a distance of 60 to 300 cm. Before deciding on a design solution such as creating a kitchen studios should weigh all the pros and cons, take into account all the nuances. If opportunities permit, then the studio is best suited for an apartment in which it will be possible to combine it with a full-fledged dining room or living room, leaving the bedroom for rest in a separate room or located on the second floor. Owners of small odnushek this option is suitable for a stretch, although it is often the only way to get a cozy and comfortable space. In the presence of children in the same room, this method is unacceptable, or zoning must be performed using a partition. Children must have their own "corner", their personal space.
With the help of modern kitchen appliances and appliances you can almost nullify the penetration of odors and sounds from electrical appliances, but aesthetic timely cleaning of the kitchen area and work surfaces remains for the person. In addition to their own desire, finance, design and interior choice, it will be necessary to go through a series of approvals for documentation on redevelopment of premises (especially for apartments in high-rise buildings). The existing building codes and bans on the location of "wet" zones (water supply, sink, sink) over the "dry" neighbors have not been canceled, as well as on the transfer of gas equipment (island type of layout, stove in the middle of the kitchen). Therefore, so that there are no troubles with the neighbors from below and above, and questions on the subsequent sale of an apartment, it is better to document these redevelopments officially.
In addition, it is worthwhile to think of exhaust issues for apartment buildings. Contact a professional designer who can give a competent advice. Make a plan for a kitchen-studio with accurate measurements of the location of the sources of water, gas and electricity. It is not necessary to select the zone "with a margin." Pay attention to the window sill, which can be expanded to turn into a workplace or a recreation area and storage. From all unused is better to refuse. People don't often come to visit you and you are used to snacking in cafes, which means you need to revise the functional areas of the studio in the direction of a full-fledged place of rest or work. If possible, use an online planner to select furniture, flooring, color, etc. Kitchen planning can be:
With a linear layout method, the entire kitchen unit is located along one wall (in a straight line). The most “sparing” type of communication is communication, because most often the standard layout of plates and sinks in the apartments is linear. If you properly arrange work surfaces and kitchen appliances, then everything will be in "step-by-step" accessibility. Only one wall will be occupied and there will be plenty of space to accommodate the dining area (table and chairs). For most ordinary small kitchens (up to 2.5m), the only real option is to place a headset. It is worth considering the issues of "breaking" of the working areas of the sink, hob and refrigerator at least 40 cm apart from each other by built-in wardrobes. This is done for safety reasons: no washing splashes will get onto the hob, the fridge will not heat up from the heat of the stove, the washed products will fold right next to them, they will not have to be carried through the kitchen to the table, etc. If the size of the kitchen allows, then in addition to the "gentleman's set": refrigerator, stove, sink; Various additional systems and equipment are added: aerogril, microwave, wine cooler or washing machine (depending on its place in the bathroom).
With a parallel (two-line) type of layout, the kitchen unit is located in the kitchen at the two opposite walls. It is used mainly in the presence of the entrance of the kitchen or having a window opposite the door. One wall usually has a sink and a stove, the opposite is a fridge and a freezer. The minimum distance between the rows is at least 1.2 meters in order to be able to open the cabinets on both sides at the same time and safely remove the pan from the oven. Visually "expand" the room, so it makes sense to think about such a layout for owners of elongated kitchens. The most significant disadvantage is that if you have a person at the stove during cooking, traffic jams are formed in the movement to the fridge for a beer while watching a football match. Therefore, it is worthwhile to think about the owners of kitchens, on which there is enough free space, over a parallel layout. Also, in order to visually expand the premises of such a kitchen, the upper wall cabinets are removed from both sides. If this is not possible, then you should order them in a light tone or hang them only on one side.
The layout view, in which the kitchen unit will be located at the perpendicular walls, is angular. There are two types of corner layout:
- L-shaped (when the headset is located along 2 corner walls);
- U-shaped (along 3 walls).
By itself, the type of layout is very convenient, ergonomic and functional. More suitable for square kitchen. When U-shaped arrangement, there are 3 working surfaces, almost "from all sides". Best of all, the U-shaped asymmetric type of lay-out “will flow” into the kitchen, which has walls of complex lay-out (niches, windows) or when the kitchen itself has the shape of a trapezoid or polygon. If cabinets are located from 3 sides, a couple of meters of “living space” between them is necessary. In addition, the use of a sink located in the corner is not very convenient.
This "island" can be arranged in the kitchen, with an area of at least 20 square meters. When implementing this type of planning, one of the working areas will be located in the middle of the kitchen. Strictly speaking, island planning will be of two types at once. The second working area will be placed on the walls in a linear or U-shaped type. Currently, island layout is very popular. They will have to donate space, but it is with this type of kitchen that the studio “plays” with its advantageous sides, and a properly selected interior will create a luxurious impression. If the hob is located in the central zone, then an extract for the “atmosphere” of the island will be located in the middle of the room, so you should consider how to hide the ventilation ducts under the ceiling. The dimensions of the "island" part, as a rule, do not exceed 1200x1200 mm in order to be able to reach any angle without making unnecessary movements. Sometimes, a dining table or serving wheel trolley is considered as an island. In this case, the tabletop is used as a work surface, and the stationary table is equipped with a system of built-in drawers and shelves for storing the necessary utensils. A peninsular layout is any type of layout with an additional extension of the working surface or cabinet with a hob, sink. The protruding surface is sometimes used as a bar or serving table.
Combined or free planning is a mixture of completely different types of kitchen planning, taking into account the taste and desires of the owners. Modern minimalism prevails in the interior of a studio apartment, but some people want to move away from the "canons" and customize a strict planning style. For especially spacious kitchen premises, it is possible to place a "circular" kitchen, which is an "island" with a linear arrangement of a headset, bent in a semicircle.
The “competent” zoning of the room, performed according to the rules, will create a feeling of comfort, availability and expediency of the arrangement of furniture and built-in equipment. The boundaries between zones can be either visual (only with the help of furniture placement, color or lighting) or physical (partitions, biofireplaces, aquariums, arches, columns, etc.). There are the following ways of combining the two rooms:
- With the help of color combinations, using contrasts;
- The use of various finishing materials in the design of the kitchen and recreation area;
- The division of zones using furniture;
- Location of floors (podium) and ceilings at different levels in zones;
- Bar counter, column, low partition or arch as a separator;
- "Live" partition of indoor plants;
- Division of zones using a large long aquarium or fireplace;
- Differentiation by lighting.
In the apartment with a combined kitchen "zest" will be exactly the zoning and design. The central places even in the smallest apartment "Khrushchev" will be the kitchen and hall (recreation area). It is necessary to determine where the owners of the premises (kitchen, living room) spend most of the time and, depending on this, increase the permanent residence zone, leaving the minimum necessary furniture for another zone. With the help of retractable screens and partitions, the kitchen is made fully, partially insulated or open. When conducting the separation of zones it is worth remembering that, unlike two different rooms that can be designed in a different style, now the kitchen will be a "logical" extension of the living room and vice versa.
Helpful advice. The rest and cooking area in the interior should correspond to the same style and interior, although the walls and floors of the kitchen and living room are made of completely different materials and different color schemes. The border of the zones should be clearly "indicated" so that guests have no doubt whether the sink is in the living room or an armchair with a TV in the kitchen.
One of the easiest ways to zoning, in which no additional arches and partitions are built. The sofa with a high, even back or a pair of chairs placed side by side will perfectly cope with the role of the “border”. From the side of the kitchen, a corner or table located along the line of separation and made of the same materials used in the studio finishing will become a natural partition. This method is also convenient for those who often change the design in the apartment. The partition between the hall and the kitchen at any time can be moved or replaced by something else.
Zoning by trimming various surfaces
The original division of zones will be when decorating the walls of the kitchen tiles, stone, plaster, and the walls of the living room are good silk wallpapers. The floor in the living room is covered with laminate flooring, parquet, and the kitchen is tiled. Whatever materials the zones divide, this will be the original solution. Selection of colors should be carried out in accordance with the conditions of natural lighting.
Split ceiling and floor
Differentiation of zones by means of a floor height difference is a classic technique that has been used at all times and placed “accents” in the room. There is a twofold view of what should be higher. Some "traditionally" raise the kitchen, citing the fact that downward it is easier to move around with full plates for guests. Determine what will be on the podium, to decide the owners of the apartment, but earlier at a height located zone more "important" in status for the owners, a kind of "throne" of the rule of personal comfort over the public. Such a division will effectively complement a two or three-level ceiling made of plasterboard, textiles or PVC film, with built-in lights, mirror-like contours of the zones and with a color transition. The podium can be equipped at the same time as a place to store all kinds of things, and its steps can be used for tapping the illumination of the lower zone. It is worth remembering that zoning by floors or ceilings is possible only with sufficient height of rooms.
Interior partitions are stationary (partitions, arches) and quick-detachable (sliding, folding according to the type of screen, with a built-in window or transom, etc.). According to the material of execution from wood and plasterboard to stylish metal racks with shelves of tempered glass in high-tech style or fabric screens. In portable partitions (screens) the advantage is their mobility. It is not difficult to separate or displace any zone simply by rearranging the partition. Choose a screen on a fabric basis to separate the kitchen area is not worth it, because the fabric absorbs odors. Here suitable PVC screens or simple latticed, made of wood. The partition with the window is placed simply to designate the boundaries of the sites and ensure the penetration of light into another zone. A “multi-colored” partition will look very interesting and unusual, the sides and texture of which will be solved in the same color scheme as the zone of each side.
Helpful advice. The main requirement: the dividing partition should not “load” the space, should not be cumbersome. The modern radius partition (rounded wooden and glass), which with its smooth lines complements the comfort of the rooms, looks unusual and beautiful.
With the help of lighting
With the help of lighting you can achieve a beautiful visual separation of zones, without using other methods. Here there are their own design laws: the working surface of the kitchen should be well lit, since cooking in the twilight is uncomfortable, and the visually poorly lit room "hides" the sense of the volume of the room. Above the center of the kitchen, you can hang a modern stylish chandelier, above the dividing bar counter, fix the ceiling lampshades and use spotlights under the wall cabinets. The zone farthest from the window should also have sufficiently bright lighting.
Helpful advice. Экспериментируя с различными источниками освещения различной интенсивности и их расположением от уровня пола, можно подобрать и необходимый "свет" для работы, и "уютное" освещение, подходящее под любое настроение.In addition, the play of light can visually increase the small space of the kitchen, which is often very limited, for example, in apartments of prefabricated houses.
How to choose a style
When choosing a style of kitchen-studio, even able to distinguish between "country and high-tech", it is best to consult an experienced designer. The main requirement of any studio-style kitchen will be minimalism, and here every little thing is important, which a person who comes across this for the first time can simply “lose”. The design styles of the kitchen studio are many:
- high tech;
- Art Deco
- country music;
It implies a calm color design without "catchy" colors and colors. Furniture made of natural wood, appliances used in the kitchen of the price category "above average". Everything must be "thoroughly" and tasteful. Classic does not tolerate piling up trifles. Particular attention is paid to competent "fit" in the style of modern elements, without which it can not do. With the wrong approach, they will be rejected by the situation, as something alien.
"Advanced", ultramodern minimalist style, replete with the presence of built-in high-end technology and gadgets. The main materials are glass and shiny steel (chrome plated, galvanized, etc.). The color scheme is cold, as well as the lighting of halogen or neon lamps, surfaces are shiny or matte. It fits well into the design of one-bedroom apartments, and in the design of private cottages.
Bright style "modern" with a claim to Oriental motifs. The colors of the kitchen are plain with floral designs. Furniture with a curved contour, but not fanciful (like baroque). Interior design is based on soothing colors and natural materials. The direction does not recognize any flashy brightness and coarseness. From furniture place only the necessary minimum. The space will not look "empty" due to the rich decoration and the abundance of small, exquisite details.
This style of nostalgia for the "house in the village" of the south of France and the feeling of unity with nature. The color solutions are built on "faded from the sun" flowers: olive, beige, pastel, ash-gray, milky. Furniture "solid", plain forms, wooden. The color of the furniture is green or blue, inconspicuous tones with a patina. The presence of wicker furniture with scuffs, copper and forged decorative elements is welcomed. Plates should be on the open shelves. The motley elements can be light curtains and textiles.
In this style a large number of "natural" elements, wood, stone, earth prevail. The color of the kitchen is white or mustard, of a light shade. Used green (herbal) color in the design, but without the "kinks". The “unexpected” elements are used as beautiful additions: a wooden deck in the form of a table, real branches on the walls, carpets with grass imitation, stones of original forms instead of souvenirs. You can decorate the kitchen in any style based on the desires and possibilities. Listen to yourself and works will be rewarded with comfort and emotional comfort.